Volume 1, Issue 1 (Winter 2018)                   Func Disabil J 2018, 1(1): 31-39 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hussam Uldeen Hatow M, Mirzajani A, Madhi Hasan H, Abdulameer Hussein H, Jafarzadehpur E. The Prevalence of Refractive Errors Among First Grade of Primary School in Amara, South of Iraq. Func Disabil J 2018; 1 (1) :31-39
URL: http://fdj.iums.ac.ir/article-1-28-en.html
1- MSc of Optometry, Department of Tehran University of Medical science, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate professor of optometry, Department of rehabilitation, School of Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran
3- Associate professor and Director of researches and studies unit, Missan, Iraq
4- Associate Professor, senior ophthalmologist at Al-Sader General Hospital and Teacher ophthalmologist at Missan Medical School, Missan, Iraq
5- Professor of optometry, optometry, Department of Rehabilitation, School of Iran University of medical science, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (3476 Views)

Abstract farsi

Background and Objectives: One of the main health problems of concern is refractive error in children, which has a real burden on community and individuals especially among schoolchildren. The study aim is to evaluate the refractive errors’ prevalence in primary school children. 

Methods: The study was a cross sectional with the element of analysis which was carried out in a primary school of the Amara city. A total of 768 children were selected randomly from 76 primary schools (urban rural, male and female schools) by cluster sampling according to the geographic area of health districts and their primary health care centers. Each child was examined for visual acuity (both uncorrected and best corrected) dry and cyclo- refraction. 

Results: In this study, the response rate was (95.7%) from which 66.1% were male  and 33.9% were female. The prevalence of refractive error was 47% (360) distributed as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism which was (19.6%, 20.1% and 7% respectively) while amblyopia was 4.8%. 39.9% of students showed abnormal visual acuity. After cyclo-refraction, the prevalence of refractive error was changed for all types, most of myopic children were female (52.1%) while most children with hyperoia (53.4%) and astigmatism (54.7%) were male children with statistical significant association (P= 0.001).
Conclusion: we concluded that refractive error and visual acuity loss prevalence was high among children of primary school in the Amara city in south of Iraq. It seems that an extensive ocular and visual screening protocol must be considered in this province.

Full-Text [PDF 270 kb]   (1162 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Optometry
Received: 2017/03/28 | Accepted: 2017/06/5 | Published: 2017/10/29

1. He M. Zeng J. Liu Y. Xu J. Pokharel GP. Ellwein LB. (2004) Refractive error and visual in urban children in Southern China. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci: 45:793-9. [DOI] [PubMed]
2. Michaeline I, Sheriff A, Bimbo A. (2016), Pediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria, Ethiop J Health Sci. Mar;26(2):145-52.
3. Evans BJ, Rowlands G. (2004) Correctable visual impairment in older people: a major unmet need. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004; 24(3):161-180. [DOI]
4. Munoz B, West SK, Rubin GS, (2000), causes of blindness and visual impairment in a population of older Americans: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 118(6):819-825. [DOI]
5. Chia E-M, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Smith W, Cumming RR, Mitchell P. (2004) Impact of bilateral visual impairment on health-related quality of life: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.; 45(1):71-76. [DOI] [PubMed]
6. Munoz B, West SK, Rodriguez J, (2002) Blindness, visual impairment and the problem of uncorrected refractive error in a Mexican-American population: Proyecto VER. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 43(3):608-614. [PubMed]
7. Vitale S, Cotch MF, Sperduto RD. (2006) Prevalence of visual impairment in the United States. JAMA. 295(18):2158-2163. [DOI]
8. Lan W, Zhao F, Lin L, Li Z, Zeng J, Yang Z, Morgan IG., (2013) Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia? PLoS One. 2013 Oct 30; 8(10):e78003. [DOI]
9. Adegbehingbe BO, Adeoye AO, Onakpoya OH. (2005), Refractive errors in children. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Science. 15:19-25. [DOI]
10. Maul E, Barroso S, Munoz SR, Sperduto RD, Ellwein LB. (2000) Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida, Chile. Am J Ophthalmol. 129:445–54. [DOI]
11. Giordano L, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Katz J, Ibironke J, Hawes P, (2009). Prevalence of refractive error among preschool children in an urban population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 116(4):739–746. [DOI]
12. Zainal M, Ismail SM, Ropilah AR, Elias H, Arumugam G, Alias D, (2002) Prevalence of blindness and low vision in Malaysian population: Results from the National Eye Survey 1996. Br J Ophthalmol. 86(9): 951–956. [DOI]
13. Goh PP, Abqariyah Y, Pokharel GP, Ellwein LB. (2005),Refractive error and visual impairment in school-age children in Gombak District, Malaysia. Ophthalmology. 112(4):678–685. [DOI]
14. Hashim SE, Tan HK, Wan-Hazabbah WH, Ibrahim M. (2008), Prevalence of refractive error in Malay primary school children in suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 37(11):940–946. [PubMed]
15. Reddy SC, Hassan M. (2006), Refractive errors and other eye diseases in primary school children in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Asian J Ophthalmol. 8(5):195–198.
16. Chang L, Pan CW, Ohno-Matsui K, Lin X, Cheung GC, Gazzard G, Koh V, Hamzah H, Tai ES, Lim SC,( 2013), Myopia-related fundus changes in Singapore adults with high myopia, Am J Ophthalmol. Jun; 155(6):991-999.e1. [DOI]
17. Zhao J, Pan X, Sui R, Munoz SR, Sperduto RD, Ellwein LB. (2000), Refractive error study in children: results from Shunyi District, China. Am J Ophthalmol. 129:427–435. [DOI]
18. Dirani M, Chan YH, Gazzard G, Hornbeak DM, Leo SW, Selvaraj P, Zhou B, Young TL, Mitchell P, (2010),Prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children: the strabismus, amblyopia, and refractive error in young Singaporean Children (STARS) study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 51(3):1348-55. [DOI]
19. Garamendi E, Pesudovs K, Stevens MJ, Elliott DB. (2006), the refractive status and vision profile: evaluation of psychometric properties and comparison of Rasch and summated Likert-scaling. Vision Res. 46:1375–1383. [DOI]
20. Saadoon A. A, Muatez H. Ja'az, Sadiq M. ALMusaway. (2017), Refractive errors in Thiqar secondary schooling graduate students: prevalence and determinants at 2016. Al-Nasiriyah journal of medicine. 32: 26-30.
21. Jamali P, Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Younesian M, Jafari A. (2009), Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in Children Entering School: Shahrood, Iran. Optom Vis Sci. 86(4):364-9. [DOI]
22. Fan S. P D, Dennis S. C. Lam, Robert F. Lam, Joseph T. F. Lau, King S. Chong, Eva Y. Y. Cheung, Ricky Y. K. Lai, and Sek-Jin Chew.( 2004), Prevalence, Incidence, and Progression of Myopia of School Children in Hong Kong. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 45(4):1071-5. [DOI] [PubMed]
23. Esteso P, Castanon A, Toledo S, (2007), Correction of Moderate Myopia Is Associated with Improvement in Self-Reported Visual Functioning among Mexican School-Aged Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 48(11):4949-54. [DOI]
24. Opubiri L, Pedro-Egbe C., (2013), Screening for refractive error among primary school children in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 14: 74. [DOI]
25. Pi H, Lin Chen, Qin Liu, NingKe, Jing Fang, Shu Zhang, Jun Xiao, Wei-Jiang Ye, Yan Xiong, Hui Shi, Xi-Yuan Zhou, Zheng-Qin Yin. (2012), Prevalence of Eye Diseases and Causes of Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children in Western China. J Epidemiol, 22(1):37-44. [DOI] [PubMed]
26. NurulFarhana Abu Bakar, Ai-Hong Chen, Abdul Rahim Md Noor1, Pik-Pin Goh.( 2012) Comparison of Refractive Error and Visual Impairment between Native Iban and Malay in a Formal Government School Vision Loss Prevention Programmed. Malays J Med Sci. 19(2): 48-55. [PubMed]
27. EL-Bayoumy B. M., A. Saad, A. H. Choudhury. (2007), Prevalence of refractive error and low vision among schoolchildren in Cairo. Eastern Mediterranean health journal, Vol. 13, No.3, 31, 68-75.
28. Yuan Yuan Hu, Jian Feng Wu, Tai Liang Lu, Hui Wu, Wei Sun, Xing Rong Wang, Hong Sheng Bi, Jost B. Jonas.( 2015) Effect of Cycloplegia on the Refractive Status of Children: The Shandong Children Eye Study. PLoS One. 10(2):e0117482. [DOI]
29. Romín, D. M., Taboada, J. J. E., Montés, P., del Águila Carrasco, A. J., & Albert, N. M. (2015). Global prevalence of hyperopia. Journal of Emmetropia: Journal of Cataract, Refractive and Corneal Surgery, 6(2), 109-116.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Function and Disability Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb